Giant Amphibian Ruled Ancient Rivers

Giant Amphibian Ruled Ancient Rivers

SECRETS OF ARCHAEOLOGY: A Place Called Etruria (Ancient History)

A Place Called Etruria (Ancient History)
Published on Apr 6, 2014
SECRETS OF ARCHAEOLOGY: A Place Called Etruria (Ancient History Documentary)

Take a virtual reality tour of history’s most intriguing ancient civilizations. Uncover the secrets of the pyramids as the Pharaohs reach for immortality, walk the streets of the Eternal City of Rome, relive a step-by-step reconstruction of Pompeii under the shadow of mighty Vesuvius, experience life in bustling Baghdad and journey to Latin America to the mythical “El Dorado.” SECRETS OF ARCHAEOLOGY makes history come alive!

A PLACE CALLED ETRURIA
Go on a journey to the ancient cities Volterra, Populonia and Cervetari and see why Etruscan civilization was famous for its extravagant wealth, fine ceramics, handicrafts and bustling trade, and how it was all lost in battles with the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

Enigma Of The Etruscans part 1 – Documentary

Published on Feb 4, 2014
They taught the French to make wine and the Romans to build roads, and they introduced writing to Europe, but the Etruscans have long been considered one of antiquity’s great enigmas. No one knew exactly where they came from. Their language was alien to their neighbors. Their religion included the practice of divination, performed by priests who examined animals’ entrails to predict the future.

Much of our knowledge about Etruscan civilization comes from ancient literary sources and from tomb excavations, many of which were carried out decades ago. But all across Italy, archaeologists are now creating a much richer picture of Etruscan social structure, trade relationships, economy, daily lives, religion, and language than has ever been possible.

Excavations at sites including the first monumental tomb to be explored in over two decades, a rural sanctuary filled with gold artifacts, the only Etruscan house with intact walls and construction materials still preserved, and an entire seventh-century B.C. miner’s town, are revealing that the Etruscans left behind more than enough evidence to show that perhaps, they aren’t such a mystery after all.

Enigma Of The Etruscans part 2 – Documentary

Ancient Sea Monster Was One of Largest Arthropods

http://www.livescience.com/50111-photos-anomalocaridids-morocco-fossil.html

by Laura Geggel, Staff Writer
Filter feeder

photo-Photos_ Ancient Sea Monster Was One of Largest Arthropods

Photos_ Ancient Sea Monster Was One of Largest Arthropods

A remarkably well-preserved fossil of a 480-million-year-old sea monster is helping researchers understand the evolution of arthropods. The creature, an anomalocaridid, has not one but two sets of legs on each of its body segments, showing that it’s an ancestor of modern-day arthropods, which include arachnids, insects and crustaceans. [Read the full story on the ancient anomalocaridid found in modern-day Morocco]

Side view with dorsal fins sticking up

photo-Photos_ Ancient Sea Monster Was One of Largest Arthropods- Fossil

Photos_ Ancient Sea Monster Was One of Largest Arthropods- Fossil

Here’s an illustration of the anomalocaridid (Aegirocassis benmoulae), a giant filter feeder that ate plankton and lived in the Early Ordovician period about 480 million years ago. The animal measured about 7 feet (2 meters) long, and is one of the largest arthropods that ever lived.
http://www.livescience.com/50112-anomalocaridid-detailed-fossil.html

Neanderthals Wore Jewelry?

Neanderthals Wore Eagle Talons As Jewelry 130,000 Years Ago

http://www.livescience.com/50114-neanderthals-wore-eagle-talon-jewelry.html?cmpid= 559237

 

Long before they shared the landscape with modern humans, Neanderthals in Europe developed a sharp sense of style, wearing eagle claws as jewelry, new evidence suggests.

Researchers identified eight talons from white-tailed eagles — including four that had distinct notches and cut marks — from a 130,000-year-old Neanderthal cave in Croatia. They suspect the claws were once strung together as part of a necklace or bracelet.

 

“It really is absolutely stunning,” study author David Frayer, an anthropology professor at the University of Kansas, told Live Science. “It fits in with this general picture that’s emerging that Neanderthals were much more modern in their behavior.” [Top 10 Mysteries of the First Humans] http://www.livescience.com/12937-10-mysteries-humans-evolution.html
(Roughly 24,000 years ago, our species, Homo sapiens, was not alone in the world — our closest relatives, the Neanderthals, (Homo Neanderthalensis ) were still alive. The so-called ‘hobbit’ found in Indonesia might also have been a member of the genus Homo, and it apparently survived until as recently as 12,000 years ago. So why did they die and we survive? Did infections or radical shifts in their environments kill them off? Or did our species do away with them? Some evidence exists for both scenarios, but no conclusion is agreed upon.)

 

The talons were first excavated more than 100 years ago at a famous sandstone rock-shelter site called Krapina in Croatia. There, archaeologists found more than 900 Neanderthal bones dating back to a relatively warm, interglacial period about 120,000 to 130,000 years ago.

They also found Mousterian stone tools (a telltale sign of Neanderthal occupation), a hearth and the bones of rhinos and cave bears, but no signs of modern human occupation. Homo sapiens didn’t spread into Europe until about 40,000 years ago.

 

The eagle talons were all found in the same archaeological layer, Frayer said, and they had been studied a few times before. But no one noticed the cut marks until last year, when Davorka Radovčić, curator of the Croatian Natural History Museum, was reassessing some of the Krapina objects in the collection.

The researchers don’t know exactly how the talons would have been assembled into jewelry. But Frayer said some facets on the claws look quite polished — perhaps made smooth from being wrapped in some kind of fiber, or from rubbing against the surface of the other talons. There were also nicks in three of the talons that wouldn’t have been created during an eagle’s life, Frayer said.

Now extinct, Neanderthals were the closest known relatives of modern humans. They lived in Eurasia from about 200,000 to 30,000 years ago. Recent research has uncovered evidence that Neanderthals may have engaged in some familiar behaviors, such as burying their dead, adorning themselves with feathers and even making art.

 

But scientists debate the extent to which Neanderthals were capable of abstract thinking. Deliberately making or wearing jewelry would suggest some degree of symbolic thought, as well as planning, Frayer explained. And the age of the talons suggests that if the Neanderthals were indeed wearing jewelry, they didn’t pick up on the trend from modern humans.

“Eagle talons are not easy to find,” Frayer said. “My guess is that they were catching the birds live — which also isn’t easy.”

The findings were published today (March 11) in the journal PLOS ONE.

Follow Megan Gannon on Twitter. Follow us @livescience, Facebook & Google+. Original article on Live Science.

Hy Brasil: The Legend & Location FOUND!

I have a few long-winded writing projects going on, and thought y’all might like to just kick back, and enjoy more mysterious possibilities. Consider this a vacation, and no kleenex is needed.

This is actually a double feature today, to give you time to consider all of the possibilities. These clips are short, so there will be no need to pack a picnic lunch.

If you go sailing, please stop by these resorts, and tell them I sent you. ( I get 20%, for giving them the business )

Top 5 Strangest Islands

Hy Brasil: The Legend & Location FOUND!

Sphinx Once Submerged Under Sea Water?

Fossil Suggests Egyptian Pyramids and Sphinx Once Submerged Under Sea Water
http://www.theepochtimes.com/n3/1274558-fossil-suggests-egyptian-pyramids-and-sphinx-once-submerged-under-sea-water/?utm_source=Epoch10&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=6

The entire landscape of the Giza Necropolis, including the pyramids and the Sphinx, shows erosion that some say suggests the area was once submerged by sea water. A unique fossil amplifies this theory.

*Image of the Great Sphinx of Giza via Shutterstock

Archaeologist Sherif El Morsi has worked extensively on the Giza Plateau for over two decades, and in 2013 he partnered with Giza for Humanity founder and fellow researcher Antoine Gigal to publish his controversial discovery of this fossil.

Dr. Robert M. Schloch was one of the first scientists to really tackle the subject of the plateau structures being older than previously thought. In the early 1990s, he suggested the Sphinx was thousands of years older than typically believed, going back to 5000–9000 B.C., based on water erosion patterns found both on the statue and the surrounding rock.

Morsi has been digging deeper into the mystery ever since. During one of his photo shoots documenting the erosion patterns of many of the megaliths in the area, he made a discovery that further suggests the area was submerged at one time.

photo-bsgf.geoscienceworld.org

bsgf.geoscienceworld.org

“During my photo shoot of this ancient seashore line, I nearly tripped off a second level temple block,” said Mr. Morsi in an article published on the Gigal Research website. “To my surprise, the bulge on the top surface of the block that nearly made me trip was a petrified exoskeleton of what seems to be an echinoid (sea urchin), which is a shallow sea marine creature.”

Morsi believes the Giza Plateau was once inundated by a sea surge. The Menkara temple site, in particular, may have once been an ancient lagoon when the high sea covered the Necropolis, the Sphinx, the temple complexes, and other sites.

Other scientists have suggested the echinoid in the limestone was exposed by erosion and the creature was part of the original limestone that formed 30 million years ago. But, Morsi countered those claims and suggested that the creature was cemented, or petrified, in a relatively more recent time, citing evidence that the creature is lying gravitationally flat, that it’s in pristine condition, that it is within the intertidal range of the lagoon, and that it is a large specimen unlike the tiny specimens typically found in limestone blocks.

photo-en.wikipedia.org

en.wikipedia.org

“We can clearly see the pristine condition and minute details of the exoskeleton perforation,” continued Morsi, “which means that this marine creature must have petrified from recent times. It is not a body fossil as most fossils are that date back to 30 million years, but petrified by the sediment deposits that have filled its hollow.”

The inundation, Morsi believes, was rather significant, reaching a maximum of about 245 feet (75 meters) over the current sea level and creating a shoreline spanning the Khafra enclosure near the Sphinx to the Menkara temple. Pitting and tidal notches due to waves and tidal ebbing pepper the stones in this area showing a 6.5-foot (2-meter) intertidal range, according to Morsi.

Moreover, at sites such as the Sphinx, the Sphinx temple, and the first 20 courses of the Great Pyramid, the stones are said to exhibit erosion due to deeper water saturation. On temple blocks, there are sediment and alluvial, or material, deposits seen in shallow sea beds and lagoons. As water recedes, it creates an oozing spongy effect in the rock.

photo-David Henderson iStock

David Henderson iStock

For an echinoid to reach 3 inches (8 centimeters), the size of the fossil, it would take about 15 years. Furthermore the amount of sediments and alluvium deposits as well as the intertidal erosion on the shallower areas would takes centuries, suggesting the area was flooded for quite some time.

However, it’s difficult to determine the exact year of the flooding. Over the past 140,000 years, the sea levels have fluctuated by more than 400 feet (120 meters), as major ice-sheets have grown and receded during glacial cycles, according to CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research.

 

Earth as Our Easter Island

Earth as Our Easter Island

Look, it’s another two for the price of one. Actually the last clip will just keep going if you are encouraging. All of the stories are short. Feel free to bring a thermos and popcorn. no kleeenex is needed here today.

Top 5 Mysterious Lost Worlds

This clip has a whole series, and will play a pile of great questionable articles. I don’t know what is real. and what is B.S. The narrater sounds intelligent, so there is always hope we can at least enjoy the mysteries.