Giant Amphibian Ruled Ancient Rivers

Giant Amphibian Ruled Ancient Rivers

SECRETS OF ARCHAEOLOGY: A Place Called Etruria (Ancient History)

A Place Called Etruria (Ancient History)
Published on Apr 6, 2014
SECRETS OF ARCHAEOLOGY: A Place Called Etruria (Ancient History Documentary)

Take a virtual reality tour of history’s most intriguing ancient civilizations. Uncover the secrets of the pyramids as the Pharaohs reach for immortality, walk the streets of the Eternal City of Rome, relive a step-by-step reconstruction of Pompeii under the shadow of mighty Vesuvius, experience life in bustling Baghdad and journey to Latin America to the mythical “El Dorado.” SECRETS OF ARCHAEOLOGY makes history come alive!

A PLACE CALLED ETRURIA
Go on a journey to the ancient cities Volterra, Populonia and Cervetari and see why Etruscan civilization was famous for its extravagant wealth, fine ceramics, handicrafts and bustling trade, and how it was all lost in battles with the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

Enigma Of The Etruscans part 1 – Documentary

Published on Feb 4, 2014
They taught the French to make wine and the Romans to build roads, and they introduced writing to Europe, but the Etruscans have long been considered one of antiquity’s great enigmas. No one knew exactly where they came from. Their language was alien to their neighbors. Their religion included the practice of divination, performed by priests who examined animals’ entrails to predict the future.

Much of our knowledge about Etruscan civilization comes from ancient literary sources and from tomb excavations, many of which were carried out decades ago. But all across Italy, archaeologists are now creating a much richer picture of Etruscan social structure, trade relationships, economy, daily lives, religion, and language than has ever been possible.

Excavations at sites including the first monumental tomb to be explored in over two decades, a rural sanctuary filled with gold artifacts, the only Etruscan house with intact walls and construction materials still preserved, and an entire seventh-century B.C. miner’s town, are revealing that the Etruscans left behind more than enough evidence to show that perhaps, they aren’t such a mystery after all.

Enigma Of The Etruscans part 2 – Documentary

‘Hang Son Soong,’ the Largest Cave on Earth

http://www.thisiscolossal.com/2015/03/an-aerial-tour-of-hang-son-soong-the-largest-cave-on-earth/

‘Hang Son Soong,’ the Largest Cave on Earth

Hang Son Doong, located in central Vietnam. Deboodt brought a drone and an array of cameras to help capture the cave system, the largest chamber of which is 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long, 200 meters (660 ft) high and 150 meters (490 ft) wide. Despite its enormity, the cave was only discovered in 1991 by a local man, and it wasn’t even studied by scientists until about five years ago. One of the most disorienting thing about watching Deboodt’s film was my brain not comprehending the scale of what I was looking at. It’s only once you notice the ant-like people walking through some of the shots that you realize just how massive this place is. You can see more of Deboodt’s cave photography on Instagram. (via PetaPixel)

https://vimeo.com/106048435

Above and Below
from Ryan Deboodt PLUS 6 months ago NOT YET RATED

A collection of timelapse footage from my travels including clouds in the would’s largest cave. I have been working on this project for awhile now and not yet fully finished. Shots from Vietnam, Myanmar, and Nepal.

Above and Below from Ryan Deboodt on Vimeo.

Baby Eating! – WARNING GRAPHIC CONTENT! – PLEASE TAKE NOTE!

 

Warning-Graphic-content.jpg (625×450)

http://www.vice.com/video/issei-sagawa-part-1

DeadWAWIn China Shocking Footage

http://uncyclopedia.wikia.com/wiki/Baby_farming
Mankind has been eating babies since before the dawn of civilization. The trading of infants as a food also dates back to before written records; however, it is generally believed that primitive man did not intentionally produce babies to eat, outside of a few isolated incidents.
Baby 20burger

A baby-burger for the fans of junk food.
The first records of actual baby farming appear in China in the 2rd century B.C.E. The baby farms are described as a relatively new concept, created in order to satisfy the demand for human flesh among the upper classes of Chinese society. Historically, Asiatic people have tended to eat more human flesh than other races. Older sources claim that Asians are biologically pre-desposed to cannibalism; however, most modern researchers have suggested the difference is mostly cultural.
Asian Baby Farming

You can also buy a baby marmelade, spread the marmelade on the bread and then enjoy eating it with the company of your friends
Baby farming quickly became common across all of China, particularly in the north-western areas, and remained so into the 20th century. In some periods, it is estimated that up to half of the babies born in China were consumed in some fashion.

 

Jonathan Swift is generally regarded as the inventor of baby farming in the West. For centuries, babies have been eaten in Europe, chiefly by Witches. However, like most baby eating, these acts should be classified as baby harvesting, if not baby stealing.
In his now famous Essay “A Modest Proposal: For Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick”, written in 1729, Swift merely suggested baby harvesting to rid Ireland of its overpopulation, not setting up baby farms. Initially, many people were shocked by the suggestion of Swift, but his arguments in favor of baby eating won the day, and in 1733, the eating of Irish catholic infants under 1 year of age was legalized by Parliament.
For several years, baby eating remained a taboo activity; known baby eaters would often be shunned by polite society. In 1737, Swift wrote a letter to the then Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole informing him of the sad state of affairs. Walpole was apparently moved by the letter, and convinced King George II to serve Irish baby at the Royal Christmas dinner that year. Within months, the Great English Baby-Eating Craze, as it would later be called, was in full swing. For the next 95 years, tens of thousands of Irish babies were devoured by the English Gentry every year, holding down the cost of land rental in Ireland and preventing widespread famine in that impoverished land.

 

In 1740, the first of many baby plantations was founded near Dublin with Jonathan Swift as the director. Despite the economic success of these baby farms, they only produced about 15% of the total infants consumed in Britain. The remaining 85% were mostly harvested unwanted infants, although a few Irish women did independently produce infants commercially. Baby farming remained restricted the Irish Catholics – selling a baby for the purpose of human consumption which was not both Catholic and Irish was punishable by death. Despite this restriction, some baby farming was introduced into Canada and South Africa.

 

Today, baby farming is limited to South-East Asia and North Korea. It was practiced in most of eastern Asia until the 20th century, but was either outlawed or rendered economically unfeasible by rising labor costs [no pun intended] and reduced demand for human flesh.

 

Gourmet babies are specially bred and raised infants, produced mainly in Laos, but formerly mostly in China.

Gourmet babies are often confused with celebrity babies, as both are far more expensive than regular babies. A celebrity baby is defined as the infant of a famous person sold for human consumption, whereas a gourmet baby is a specially bred infants who parents are, in all likelihood, not well known.

 

Gourmet babies are always raised on licensed baby plantations, while a celebrity baby is almost never grown on a baby farm. Despite the setback to this industry by the outlawing of baby farming in China, the gourmet baby industry has grown rapidly in recent years, while the baby farming industry as a whole has significantly contracted.

http://uncyclopedia.wikia.com/wiki/Baby_farming

A Few Of The Most Destructive Volcanoes

http://www.livescience.com/16679-most-destructive-volcanoes.html
Deccan Traps – Deccan Plateau, India – about 60 million years ago
Credit: NASA Earth Observatory

photo-Deccan Traps

Deccan Traps

The Deccan Traps are a set of lava beds in the Deccan Plateau region of what is now India that cover an area of about 580,000 square miles (1.5 million square kilometers), or more than twice the area of Texas. The lava beds were laid down in a series of colossal volcanic eruptions that occurred between 63 million and 67 million years ago. The timing of the eruptions roughly coincides with the disappearance of the dinosaurs, the so-called K-T mass extinction (the shorthand given to the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction). Evidence for the volcanic extinction of the dinosaurs has mounted in recent years, though many scientists still support the idea that an asteroid impact did the dinosaurs in. Above is an aerial photo of the Lonar Crater in India, which rests inside of the Deccan Plateau, the massive plain of volcanic basalt rock left over from the eruption.

Yellowstone Supervolcano – northwest corner of Wyoming, United States – about 640,000 years ago

Credit: Nina B | shutterstock

photo-Yellowstone Supervolcano

Yellowstone Supervolcano

The history of what is now Yellowstone National Park is marked by many enormous eruptions, the most recent of which occurred about 640,000 years ago, according to the United States Geological Survey. When this gigantic supervolcano erupted, it sent about 250 cubic miles (1,000 cubic kilometers) of material into the air. The eruptions have left behind hardened lava fields and calderas, depressions that form in the ground when material below it is erupted to the surface. The magma chambers thought to underlie the Yellowstone hotspot also provide the park with one of its enduring symbols, its geysers, as the water is heated up by the hot magma that flows underneath the ground. Some researchers have predicted that the supervolcano will blow its top again, an event that would cover up to half the country in ash up to 3 feet (1 meter) deep, one study predicts. The volcano only seems to go off about once every 600,000 years, though whether it ever will happen again isn’t known for sure. Recently though, tremors have been recorded in the Yellowstone area. The midway geyser basin in Wyoming’s Yellowstone National Park, current day.

Thera – island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea – sometime between 1645 B.C. and 1500 B.C.

Credit: mathom | shutterstock

photo-Thera – island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea

Thera – island of Santorini in the Aegean Sea

While the date of the eruption isn’t known with certainty, geologists think that Thera exploded with the energy of several hundred atomic bombs in a fraction of a second. Though there are no written records of the eruption, geologists think it could be the strongest explosion ever witnessed. The island that hosted the volcano, Santorini (part of an archipelago of volcanic islands), had been home to members of the Minoan civilization, though there are some indications that the inhabitants of the island suspected the volcano was going to blow its top and evacuated. But though those residents might have escaped, there is cause to speculate that the volcano severely disrupted the culture, with tsunamis and temperature declines caused by the massive amounts of sulfur dioxide it spewed into the atmosphere that altered the climate. Above is how the volcanic island of Santorini looks now.

Mount Vesuvius – Pompeii, Roman Empire (now Italy) – 79

Credit: Katie Smith Photography | shutterstock

photo-Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius

Mount Vesuvius is a so-called stratovolcano that lies to the east of what is now Naples, Italy. Stratovolcanoes are tall, steep, conical structures that periodically erupt explosively and are commonly found where one of Earth’s plates is subducting below another, producing magma along a particular zone. Vesuvius’ most famous eruption is the one that buried the Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum in rock and dust in 79, killing thousands. The ashfall preserved some structures of the town, as well as skeletons and artifacts that have helped archaeologists better understand ancient Roman culture. Vesuvius is also considered by some to be the most dangerous volcano in the world today, as a massive eruption would threaten more than 3 million people who live in the area. The volcano last erupted in 1944.

Laki – Iceland – 1783
Credit: smcfeeters | shutterstock

photo-Laki – Iceland

Laki – Iceland

Iceland has many volcanoes that have erupted over the course of history. One notable blast was the eruption of Laki volcano in 1783. Above is the Laki island of Iceland, modern day. The eruption freed trapped volcanic gases that were carried by the Gulf Stream over to Europe. In the British Isles, many died of gas poisoning. The volcanic material sent into the air also created fiery sunsets recorded by 18th-century painters. Extensive crop damage and livestock losses created a famine in Iceland that resulted in the deaths of one-fifth of the population, according to the Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Program. The volcanic eruption, like many others, also influenced the world’s climate, as the particles it sent into the atmosphere blocked some of the sun’s incoming rays.

11 Things You May Not Know About Ancient Egypt

 11 Things You May Not Know About Ancient Egypt

By Evan Andrews

Ancient Egypt stood as one of the world’s most advanced civilizations for nearly 3,000 years and created a culture so rich that it has spawned its own field of study. But while Egyptian art, architecture and burial methods have become enduring objects of fascination, there is still a lot you probably don’t know about these famed builders of the pyramids. From the earliest recorded peace treaty to ancient board games, find out 11 surprising facts about the Gift of the Nile.

1. Cleopatra was not Egyptian.

Cleopatra

Along with King Tut, perhaps no figure is more famously associated with ancient Egypt than Cleopatra VII. But while she was born in Alexandria, Cleopatra was actually part of a long line of Greek Macedonians originally descended from Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great’s most trusted lieutenants. The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 B.C., and most of its leaders remained largely Greek in their culture and sensibilities. In fact, Cleopatra was famous for being one of the first members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to actually speak the Egyptian language.

2. The ancient Egyptians forged one of the earliest peace treaties on record.

Hittite Peace Treaty

For over two centuries the Egyptians fought against the Hittite Empire for control of lands in modern day Syria. The conflict gave rise to bloody engagements like 1274 B.C.’s Battle of Kadesh, but by time of the pharaoh Ramses II neither side had emerged as a clear victor. With both the Egyptians and Hittites facing threats from other peoples, in 1259 B.C. Ramses II and the Hittite King Hattusili III negotiated a famous peace treaty. This agreement ended the conflict and decreed that the two kingdoms would aid each other in the event of an invasion by a third party. The Egyptian-Hittite treaty is now recognized as one of the earliest surviving peace accords, and a copy can even be seen above the entrance to the United Nations Security Council Chamber in New York.

3. Ancient Egyptians loved board games.

Egyptian Board Games

After a long day’s work along the Nile River, Egyptians often relaxed by playing board games. Several different games were played, including “Mehen” and “Dogs and Jackals,” but perhaps the most popular was a game of chance known as “Senet.” This pastime dates back as far as 3500 B.C. and was played on a long board painted with 30 squares. Each player had a set of pieces that were moved along the board according to rolls of dice or the throwing sticks. Historians still debate Senet’s exact rules, but there is little doubt of the game’s popularity. Paintings depict Queen Nefertari playing Senet, and pharaohs like Tutankhamen even had game boards buried with them in their tombs.

4. Egyptian women had a wide range of rights and freedoms.

Egyptian women

While they may have been publicly and socially viewed as inferior to men, Egyptian women enjoyed a great deal of legal and financial independence. They could buy and sell property, serve on juries, make wills and even enter into legal contracts. Egyptian women did not typically work outside the home, but those who did usually received equal pay for doing the same jobs as men. Unlike the women of ancient Greece, who were effectively owned by their husbands, Egyptian women also had the right to divorce and remarry. Egyptian couples were even known to negotiate an ancient prenuptial agreement. These contracts listed all the property and wealth the woman had brought into the marriage and guaranteed that she would be compensated for it in the event of a divorce.

5. Egyptian workers were known to organize labor strikes.

Egyptian labor strike

Even though they regarded the pharaoh as a kind of living god, Egyptian workers were not afraid to protest for better working conditions. The most famous example came in the 12th century B.C. during the reign of the New Kingdom pharaoh Ramses III. When laborers engaged in building the royal necropolis at Deir el-Medina did not receive their usual payment of grain, they organized one of the first recorded strikes in history. The protest took the form of a sit-in: The workers simply entered nearby mortuary temples and refused to leave until their grievances were heard. The gamble worked, and the laborers were eventually given their overdue rations.

6. Egyptian pharaohs were often overweight.

Egyptian pharaohs

Egyptian art commonly depicts pharaohs as being trim and statuesque, but this was most likely not the case. The Egyptian diet of beer, wine, bread and honey was high in sugar, and studies show that it may have done a number on royal waistlines. Examinations of mummies have indicated that many Egyptian rulers were unhealthy and overweight, and even suffered from diabetes. A notable example is the legendary Queen Hatshepsut, who lived in the 15th century B.C. While her sarcophagus depicts her as slender and athletic, historians believe she was actually obese and balding.

7. The pyramids were not built by slaves.

Egyptian Pyramids

The life of a pyramid builder certainly wasn’t easy—skeletons of workers commonly show signs of arthritis and other ailments—but evidence suggests that the massive tombs were built not by slaves but by paid laborers. These ancient construction workers were a mix of skilled artisans and temporary hands, and some appear to have taken great pride in their craft. Graffiti found near the monuments suggests they often assigned humorous names to their crews like the “Drunkards of Menkaure” or the “Friends of Khufu.” The idea that slaves built the pyramids at the crack of a whip was first conjured by the Greek historian Herodotus in the fifth century B.C., but most historians now dismiss it as myth. While the ancient Egyptians were certainly not averse to keeping slaves, they appear to have mostly used them as field hands and domestic servants.

8. King Tut may have been killed by a hippopotamus.

King Tut hippopotamus

Surprisingly little is known about the life of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamen, but some historians believe they know how he died. Scans of the young king’s body show that he was embalmed without his heart or his chest wall. This drastic departure from traditional Egyptian burial practice suggests that he may have suffered a horrific injury prior to his death. According to a handful of Egyptologists, one of the most likely causes for this wound would have been a bite from a hippopotamus. Evidence indicates that the Egyptians hunted the beasts for sport, and statues found in King Tut’s tomb even depict him in the act of throwing a harpoon. If the boy pharaoh was indeed fond of stalking dangerous game, then his death might have been the result of a hunt gone wrong.

9. Some Egyptian doctors had specialized fields of study.

Egyptian doctors

An ancient physician was usually a jack-of-all-trades, but evidence shows that Egyptian doctors sometimes focused on healing only one part of the human body. This early form of medical specialization was first noted in 450 B.C. by the traveler and historian Herodotus. Discussing Egyptian medicine, he wrote, “Each physician is a healer of one disease and no more…some of the eye, some of the teeth, some of what pertains to the belly.” These specialists even had specific names. Dentists were known as “doctors of the tooth,” while the term for proctologists literally translates to “shepherd of the anus.”

10. Egyptians kept many animals as pets.

Egyptians pets

The Egyptians saw animals as incarnations of the gods and were one of the first civilizations to keep household pets. Egyptians were particularly fond of cats, which were associated with the goddess Bastet, but they also had a reverence for hawks, ibises, dogs, lions and baboons. Many of these animals held a special place in the Egyptian home, and they were often mummified and buried with their owners after they died. Other creatures were specially trained to work as helper animals. Egyptian police officers, for example, were known to use dogs and even trained monkeys to assist them when out on patrol.

11. Egyptians of both sexes wore makeup.

Egyptians makeup

Vanity is as old as civilization, and the ancient Egyptians were no exception. Both men and women were known to wear copious amounts of makeup, which they believed gave them the protection of the gods Horus and Ra. These cosmetics were made by grinding ores like malachite and galena into a substance called kohl. It was then liberally applied around the eyes with utensils made out of wood, bone and ivory. Women would also stain their cheeks with red paint and use henna to color their hands and fingernails, and both sexes wore perfumes made from oil, myrrh and cinnamon. The Egyptians believed their makeup had magical healing powers, and they weren’t entirely wrong: Research has shown that the lead-based cosmetics worn along the Nile actually helped stave off eye infections.

http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/11-things-you-may-not-know-about-ancient-egypt

Creationism Or Evolutionism?

Well here’s something to get everyone wondering where I’m coming from. I believe in God and I believe there is an intelligent design to the universe. I don’t believe all of what we are capable and can see and do, is just a fluke.

I also believe in evolution. If we say: On the first day God created….What day would that be?

I am a Latter-day Saint, a member of the Mormon Church. If our Heavenly Father resides on ” Kolab ” as in the ” Pearl Of Great Price ” according to the book of Abraham, one day there represents 1000 years here.

There is nothing in Biblical scripture that says ” On Monday this, and on Tuesday that. The Bible only states ” On the first day ” and then it states, ” On the next day….Who is to say how many days went by before the next day was to happen.

That allows for evolution….A friend of mine, a former Bishop of the L.D.S. Church had a theory. It suggested while Adam and Eve were hanging out in the Garden Of Eden, there was no sickness, death, or anything except the two of them frolicking.

Until the serpent convinced Eve to taste of the forbidden fruit, countless eons may have passed. The ” Fruit ” was Knowledge. Eons is considered more than 1, and an eon is thought to be about half of a billion years.

Even if Creationism is correct, there was plenty of time for an intelligently designed system to evolve, and we are constantly evolving, as per our own scientific observations.

Overview: The Conflict Between Religion and Evolution
http://www.pewforum.org/2009/02/04/overview-the-conflict-between-religion-and-evolution/

Almost 150 years after Charles Darwin published his groundbreaking work On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Americans are still fighting over evolution. If anything, the controversy has grown in both size and intensity.

(See The Social and Legal Dimensions of the Evolution Debate in the U.S.) http://www.pewforum.org/2009/02/04/the-social-and-legal-dimensions-of-the-evolution-debate-in-the-us/

But beginning in the 1960s, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a number of decisions that imposed severe restrictions on those state governments that opposed the teaching of evolution.

Teaching creation science, either along with evolutionary theory or in place of it, is also banned.

In the last decade, some local and state school boards in Kansas, Pennsylvania and elsewhere have considered teaching what they contend are scientific alternatives to evolution –
Notably the concept of intelligent design, which posits that life is too complex to have developed without the intervention of an outside, possibly divine force.

(See Fighting Over Darwin, State by State.)
http://www.pewforum.org/2009/02/04/fighting-over-darwin-state-by-state/

Evolution is “a theory, not a fact [and] … should be approached with an open mind, studied carefully and critically considered.”

(See Darwin and His Theory of Evolution.) http://www.pewforum.org/2009/02/04/darwin-and-his-theory-of-evolution/

Others dismiss creation science as religion, not science, and describe intelligent design as little more than creationism dressed up in scientific jargon.

(See Evolution: A Timeline.) http://www.pewforum.org/2009/02/04/evolution-a-timeline/

So if evolution is as established as the theory of gravity, why are people still arguing about it a century and a half after it was first proposed?

For many, the Darwinian view of life – a panorama of brutal struggle and constant change – goes beyond contradicting the biblical creation story and conflicts with the Judeo-Christian concept of an active and loving God who cares for his creation.

(See Religious Groups’ Views on Evolution.) http://www.pewforum.org/2009/02/04/religious-groups-views-on-evolution/

Evolution: A Glossary of Terms

Creationism – The belief that the creation story in the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible book of Genesis is literally true and is akin to a scientific explanation for the creation of the Earth and the development of life.

Creation science – A movement that has attempted to uncover scientific evidence to show that the biblical creation story is true. Some in the creation science movement, known as “young Earth creationists,” reject not only evolution but also the idea that the universe and the Earth are billions of years old.

Darwinian evolution – The theory, first articulated by Charles Darwin, that life on Earth has evolved through natural selection, a process through which plants and animals change over time by adapting to their environments.

Intelligent design – The belief that life is too complex to have evolved entirely through natural processes and that an outside, possibly divine force must have played a role in the origin and development of life.

Social Darwinism – A belief that Darwin’s evolutionary theory can be applied to human society and that groups of people, just like life in the wild, are subject to “survival of the fittest.” The now discredited idea influenced many social theories and movements in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, from laissez-faire capitalism to various eugenics movements.

Scientific theory – A statement or principle, honed through scientific observation, reasoning and experimentation, that explains a natural phenomenon.

Theistic evolution – A belief held by some religious groups, including the Catholic Church, that God is the guiding force behind the process of evolution.

This report was written by David Masci, a senior researcher at the Pew Research Center’s Religion & Public Life Project.
_______________________________________________________________________
The above post is a short summary of the article. The article explains what “evolution is, as opposed to “creationism”. The post was very explicit, in that it was totally neutral.

Because of the Church and State, separation issues, it has been mandated Creationism, is a religious belief, and therefor can not be taught in schools.

If someone were to gather enough scientific evidence for the proofs of Creationism, the debates over what to teach in schools might turn the other way.

The Bible is not considered a proof as it was a compilation of many different books, written over a great timespan and heavily edited numerous times.

Although the Bible may be a narrative of the beginning of this world and the people here, there are no scientific proofs that it is anything more than a story.

There are torches and pitchforks in the corner, should you feel the need to use such tools to make your beliefs known. This website is protected by a shield of energy ( Force Field ) which uses all negative energy as further protection.

I hope no ideals or beliefs were hurt in the writing of this post.