Mars once had an ocean with more water than the Arctic

Mars once had an ocean with more water than the Arctic – NASA    Mars Mars

Analysis of water residue in Martian ice caps indicates that the Red Planet was once – at least partly – blue. Billions of years ago, Mars had a body of water that held more water than Earth’s Arctic Ocean, according to a NASA study published Thursday.    Mars Mars
Please follow the link above for a wonderful slide show I didn’t want to steal!

“Our study provides a solid estimate of how much water Mars once had, by determining how much later was lost to space,”said Geronimo Villanueva, a scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and lead author of the paper.

The study, published in Science magazine, is a result of observations and computations based on data from three telescope facilities on Earth, the instruments of which were able to distinguish the chemical signatures of two different types of water in the remnants of Mars’ atmosphere.
NASA | Measuring Mars’ Ancient Ocean

Much of the Martian ice is composed of “heavy” water, or molecules in which the regular hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an isotope known as deuterium. After analyzing the ratio of these molecules, scientists believe they have calculated the amount of water Mars once had based on known rates of water loss to space.

According to the study, only 13 percent of Mars’ original water remains in the ice caps. Scientists have estimated that 4.3 billion years ago, the planet had enough water for an ocean taking up 19 percent of its surface and reaching a depth of more than a mile (1.6 kilometers) in places. NASA videos released Thursday show the ocean covering much of Mars’ northern hemisphere.    Mars Mars

In terms of surface area, Mars’ ocean was even larger than the Atlantic Ocean, which covers 17 percent of Earth’s surface.

NASA’s Curiosity probe has previously documented planetary features shaped by water flows and lakes. The existence of oceans on Mars suggests the planet may have been more hospitable to life than initially believed.

“With Mars losing that much water, the planet was very likely wet for a longer period of time than was previously thought, suggesting it might have been habitable for longer,” said Michael Mumma, a senior scientist at Goddard and the second author of the paper.    Mars Mars

Private explorers may reach Mars before that, however. Mars One, a Dutch nonprofit, has been selecting candidates for a four-person, one-way mission from a pool of over 200,000 applicants over the past two years, narrowing it down to 100 finalists recently. They hope to send an unmanned advance mission to Mars by 2018. More

1 Trillion Pieces of Plastic
Hey y’all; I would ask you to look over this petition and consider signing it. The above link is a story, complete with maps and photos showing the size and locations of masses of floating debris


photo map

Trash Vortex

This mass of garbage is not only on the surface of the ocean. The plastic particles range from micro-size to large pieces easily seen. These continent sized patches of garbage are the remnants of tsunami’s and humanity dumping crap into the ocean.

The particulates extend all of the way to the bottom of the ocean,     affecting fish and wildlife.

Protect Ocean Life From 1 Trillion Pieces of Plastic Sign The Petition


photo plastic-bottles


Bottles, wrappers, bags… we produce hundreds of millions of tons of plastic each year and this trash is being trapped in Arctic ice. As global warming progresses and the Arctic ice melts, our oceans could flood with a trillion pieces of trash. Take action to combat climate change today.

The recent finding of massive amounts of trash in the Arctic took scientists completely by surprise. We knew the Great Pacific Garbage Patch was a common destination of loose microplastics — but the Arctic garbage came as a shock.


photo Ocean debris

Ocean debris


The discovery reminds us that as the earth continues to warm, we may face unexpected crises in addition to the disasters we already see coming!

Fossil fuel burning power plants are the single largest source of dangerous carbon pollution in our nation and one of the largest in the world.

Call on our leaders to protect our oceans and limit pollution from power plants.

Thank you,

Kayla C.

photo albatross_chick_remains

albatross_chick_remainsThe Care2 Petitions Team
Just the headlines to these articles are enough:

Continent-size toxic stew of plastic trash fouling swath of Pacific Ocean.

Floating rubbish dump ‘bigger than US.’
Plague of Plastic Chokes the Seas.

Read how “Plastic Turning Vast Area of Ocean into Ecological Nightmare.”